Anima venatoris 
Copyright: Aina Seering / ECOTERRA Intl.

Hunter - gatherer time                                                                                                                    excerpt from LIVINGTIME: The Euro-American image of time is a machine, a factory assembly line chucking out identical hours, each unremarked and indistinguishable. Worse than that, it has insisted that its time is the time, and that indigenous peoples all over the world lack a ‘proper’ sense of time. It is not a lack. Rather they have cultivated a far more subtle and sensitive relationship to time and timing.


Kenya - what is that ?                                                                                                                    Kenya got it's name from Mt. Kenya. But Mt. Kenya's original name is Kirinyaga in the predominat Kikuyu language spoken along the slopes. The Europeans, however, approached the mountain from the side where the Meru community lived and lives, who could not pronounce the name Kirinyaga properly. They said Kiinya, the result with the Whites was "Kenya".

Our Perspective on WHAT is ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE?                                                          To Aboriginal peoples, native to the land they live in since time immemorial, the term "environmental justice" goes beyond the issue of disproportionate toxic and nuclear contamination and health exposure of our elders, men, women, youth, children and our traditional food web. ... ff

What ails Kenya's policy on wildlife?                                                                                               Policy Insight (October, 1998 - Vol. 1 No. 2) ACTS Policy Insights series deals with topical issues concerning climate change, biodiversity, governance and other aspects of the environment as they emerge. Insights is an occasional publication, and the opinions expressed in it belong to the authors.

Archaeology of Slavery in East Africa                                                                                              African archaeology has primarily been concerned with precolonial Africa. Consequently, the archaeology of colonial and postcolonial Africa has been neglected, in spite of the fundamental importance of how Africa's relationships with Eurasia after 1488 shaped its history.

Tribe or Nation?               (PDF)                                                                                                     Nation-Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania

Land Rights Movements      PDF                                                                                                 Professor Daniel W. Bromley - University of Wisconsin-Madison --- Indigenous peoples in territories subjected to European conquest dating from the late 15th century onward have managed to focus national and international attention on their subjugation and dispossession. These various movements, primarily concentrated in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South America, and the United States, began in different places at different times over the past several decades.

ABORIGINAL LAND RIGHTS - looking over the fence to Australia                                                      The Indigenous spending drip - Land rights - the new debate we had to have - Crikey Daily - Tuesday, 12 April - Political correspondent Christian Kerr writes: “Indigenous communities have suffered from misplaced idealism,” Jenness Warren, a workplace English language and literacy tutor for the Laynhapuy Homeland Association Inc in the Northern Territory, wrote in a Financial Review (see below).

Hinterlands and cities   PDF                                                                                                           Archaeological investigations of economy and trade in Tsavo, southeastern Kenya - Economic, political, and social relationships with hinterlands have been crucial in the development of urban centers. Trade is acknowledged as a leading factor in the development of many precolonial Ahcan cities, including the Swahili towns of the East Afncan coast, which developed from AD 800. Historical and archaeological evidence document that the Swahili managed a thriving extra-Afncan trade in ivory, rhinoceros horns, skins, mangroves, slaves, and bush products in exchange for imported luxury items. Yet, the impact of trade on urban hinterlands in Afnca remains poorly known.

MARENA RESEARCH PROJECT - Working Paper no.4  PDF                                                           Inter Institutional Alliances and Conflicts in Natural Resource Management - Preliminary Research Findings from Borana, Oromia Region, Ethiopia - Elisabeth Watson, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge

HUNTER-GATHERER STUDIES: THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT   PDF                                        Anthropological and behavioral ecological studies of living hunter-gatherers have .ourished since the 1960’s. Researchers have developed and followed a variety of paradigms, each with its own assumptions and objectives, based on the behavior of huntergatherer communities. I argue here that in order to evaluate the validity of the use of a speci.c hunter-gatherer group for particular paradigmatic purposes, details of the historical and social context of the group are needed. The use of an inappropriate group, as determined by its context, can call into question the conclusions of a study.

Marginalisation of the Waata Oromo hunter–gatherers of Kenya: insider and outsider perspectives       This paper examines how the way of life of a little known group of hunter–gatherers, the Waata Oromo, was brought to an end through British colonial wildlife conservation laws and the creation of national parks in Kenya.

The predicament of the Waata, former hunter-gatherers of East and Northeast Africa                           etic and emic perspectives - Aneesa Kassam and Ali Balla Bashuna - Paper to be presented at the Ninth International Conference on Hunters and Gatherers, Edinburgh, Scotland, 9-13 September, 2002. - N.B.: This article refers to Watha living associated with the Gabbra and Borana

A Challenge to Conservationists       PDF                                                                                        Excerpted from the November/December 2004 WORLDWATCH magazine - Copyright 2004 Worldwatch Institute -

A Challenge to Conservationists: Phase II     PDF                                                                            FROM READERS - Excerpted from the January/February 2005 WORLD WATCH magazine - Copyright 2004 Worldwatch Institute - 

Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (ILO No. 169), 72 ILO Official Bull. 59, entered into force Sept. 5, 1991  The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation, Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office, and having met in its seventy-sixth session on 7 June 1989, and Noting the international standards contained in the Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention and Recommendation, 1957...

Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property - 17 Nov 70  Entry in force: 24 April 1972. - The General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, meeting in Paris from 12 October to 14 November 1970, at its sixteenth session...

PROTECTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN TIME OF WAR AND ITS AFTERMATH                          by JAMES A. R. NAFZIGER - James Nafziger is the Thomas B. Stoel Professor of Law and Director of International Programs, Willamette University College of Law. He chairs the Committee on Cultural Heritage Law of the International Law Association (ILA) and serves as President of the ILA's American Branch. He is also a member of IFAR's Law Advisory Council.

International Alliance Charter                                                                                                          (Established Penang, Malaysia, 15 Feb 1992) - (Revised Nairobi, Kenya, 22 Nov 2002) Article 1. - We, the indigenous and tribal peoples of the tropical-forests, present this charter as a response to hundreds of years of continual encroachment and colonisation of our territories and the undermining of our lives, livelihoods and cultures caused by the destruction of the forests that our survival depends on. ...

THE REAL STORY OF THANKSGIVING                                                                                         Most of us associate the holiday with happy Pilgrims and Indians sitting down to a big feast. And that did happen - once. - The story began in 1614 when a band of English explorers sailed home to England with a ship full of Patuxet Indians bound for slavery.

Is primitivism realistic? An anarchist reply to John Zerzan and others                                                 (December 1, 2005) A reply to primitivist critiques of 'Civilisation, Primitivism and Anarchism' - - One of the major confusions in the anarchist movement in the USA and parts of Europe arises out of primitivism and its claim to be part of the anarchist movement. But primitivism is not a realistic strategy for social revolution and it opposes the basic purpose of anarchism - the creation of a free mass society. Primitivists have attempted to reply to these criticisms but these replies are easily exposed as more to do with faith then reality.

Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean                                                              Book Review - The Western Journal of Black Studies - Although the question of race has been an important sociological issue ever since the development of anthropology as a study of different human groups, contemporary philosophy has had relatively little to say about the topic. Interestingly enough though, three of the luminaries of Western philosophy did write about race as if those human groups that distinguished themselves both geographically and phenotypically constituted natural kinds in terms of temperament and intellect.

AFRICAN 'INDIGENOUS PEOPLES' SEARCHING FOR A FUTURE                                                  Archive 1993 - 'Indigenous Peoples' from all corners of the African continent have met for the first time to take stock of their situation and organise for their future.

Bibliography of Foraging Peoples                                                                                                    by Robert Lawless                                                                                please go to:

Hunter-Gatherer Bibliography                                                                                                          This bibliography was last up-dated on June 16, 1997

Indigenous Peoples’ Declaration     PDF                                                                                     Indigenous Preparatory Meeting - 16-17 JUNE, 2002 - International Association Centre- Brussels, Belgium

WE DO NOT WANT TO BECOME AND END LIKE ISHI                                                                   Ishi was the last surviving member of the Yahi tribe. He was born about 1862. The Yahi were related to the Yana Indians who once lived in northern California of todays USA.